In a case of first impression, defendant, the father of twin daughters, was convicted by a jury in the Federal Court for the Southern District of New York of two counts of willful failure to pay a court ordered child support obligation in violation of 18 USC §228(a). One of the questions of first impression for the Second Circuit Court of Appeals was “whether violation of a single child support order which covers two children gives rise to one or two violations of 18 USC §228.” Conviction is affirmed on one count, vacated on the second, and the matter remanded for resentencing. When Congress leaves a statute ambiguous as to the proper unit of prosecution, “the ambiguity should be resolved in favor of lenity.” Here, because the statute does not clearly distinguish between a “support obligation” and a “court order,” defendant’s willful failure to comply with the underlying order of support for his two daughters justifies the prosecution of only one count for willfully violating an order of support, rather than two counts for failing to pay support for his twin daughters. USA v. Kerley. Decided 9/25/08.
There is a presumption, applicable to child support enforcement proceedings in Family Court that a party, against whom a child support order was issued, has sufficient means to support his/her minor children. See Family Court Act § 437. The evidence that the party directed to pay child support has failed to pay support as ordered, constitutes “prima facie evidence of a willful violation”. Family Court Act § 454(3)(a). Once the petition alleging willful violation of a child support order was filed in the Family Court, the burden then shifts to respondent to adduce some competent, credible evidence of his/her inability to make the required payments. If the requisite showing is not made, the party will be found to have willfully failed to pay child support. Once this finding is made, the party is liable to a range of penalties, including attorneys fees and possible incarceration.
This presumption does not apply to child support enforcement proceedings brought in Supreme Court under the Domestic Relations law. If an enforcement proceeding is brought in Supreme Court, the usual remedies sought are a judgment for any unpaid arrears, attorneys fees and, possibly, a finding of contempt. The burden of proof applicable to contempt proceedings is much higher than that applicable to the proceedings brought under Family Court Act § 437.
New York has recently amended two sections of the Penal Law, §260.05 and §260.06, which make it a crime for a parent to voluntarily reduce his or her income, terminate employment or fail to seek employment to circumvent an order of child support. Specifically, §260.05, non-support of a child in the second degree, provides that:
A person is guilty of non-support of a child when:
1. being a parent, guardian or other person legally charged with the care or custody of a child less than sixteen years old, he or she fails or refuses without lawful excuse to provide support for such child when he or she is able to do so, or becomes unable to do so, when, though employable, he or she voluntarily terminates his or her employment, voluntarily reduces his or her earning capacity, or fails to diligently seek employment; or
2. being a parent, guardian or other person obligated to make child support payments by an order of child support entered by a court of competent jurisdiction for a child less than eighteen years old, he or she knowingly fails or refuses without lawful excuse to provide support for such child when he or she is able to do so, or becomes unable to do so, when, though employable, he or she voluntarily terminates his or her employment, voluntarily reduces his or her earning capacity, or fails to diligently seek employment.
Penal Law §260.06 makes such failure to support a felony if a person was convicted of violating Penal Law §260.05 within the last 5 years. Such charges are available in conjunction with other remedies available to the recipient of child support under the Family Court Act, the Domestic Relations Law and the Judiciary Law. Both sections take effect on November 1, 2008.