Posts Tagged ‘relocation’

Need to Preserve Relationship with Parent Does Not Take Precedence Over Economic Factors in Relocation Cases

Saturday, October 29th, 2011

In Butler v Hess, 85 A.D.3d 1689 (4th Dept. 2011), petitioner father filed a petition seeking to modify the parties’ existing joint custodial arrangement. Specifically, respondent mother had primary physical residence and the father had visitation. The father sought to prevent the mother from relocating with the child to Pennsylvania and sought sole custody of the child.

The mother filed a cross petition seeking permission for the child to relocate with her to Pennsylvania. The trial court denied mother’s application and prohibited her from relocating to Pennsylvania. The Appellate Division agreed with mother’s contentions that Family Court erred in denying her cross petition.

The Appellate Division found that the record established that, pursuant to the existing arrangement, the father had regularly scheduled visitation with the child. The mother remarried in December 2003, when the child was six years old, and the mother and the child began living with the mother’s husband at that time. In December 2006, the mother lost her job as a result of budget cutbacks and, in July 2007, the mother’s husband lost his job after his position was eliminated. The mother’s husband accepted a job in Pennsylvania in October 2007, which was the basis for the mother’s cross petition seeking permission to relocate with the child to Pennsylvania to join her husband. The Court concluded that the mother established by the requisite preponderance of the evidence that the proposed relocation would serve the child’s best interests”. Tropea v. Tropea, 87 N.Y.2d 727, 741 (1996). The Court of Appeals in Tropea held that economic necessity may present a particularly persuasive ground for permitting the proposed move. According to the Appellate Division, the record reflected that the trial court did not adequately, if at all, consider the financial considerations underlying the requested relocation. The mother requested permission to relocate because she and her husband lost their jobs within a relatively short period of time. The mother’s husband testified that both his health insurance, which also covered the mother and the child, and his severance pay ran out in August 2007. After the mother’s husband lost his job, he and the mother depleted their savings and their house was placed into foreclosure. The mother and her husband testified that they unsuccessfully attempted to locate jobs in Western New York and that the mother’s husband accepted the job in Pennsylvania out of financial necessity.

The trial court based its determination primarily on its conclusion that the relocation would “qualitatively affect” the child’s relationship with the father. The Appellate Division held that this was erroneous because the need to give appropriate weight to the feasibility of preserving the relationship between the parent without primary physical custody and [the child through suitable visitation arrangements does not take precedence over the need to give appropriate weight to the economic necessity for the relocation. Further, the record established that the proposed relocation would not have a substantial impact on the visitation schedule. The mother and the husband testified that they would transport the child to and from Pennsylvania every other weekend, and they offered to pay for a hotel for the father in Pennsylvania on his off-weekends so that he could exercise additional access with the child. The mother further testified that the holiday access schedule would remain the same because she and her husband would be returning to Western New York at those times to visit with their respective families, who resided there. In addition, the mother's husband purchased video conferencing equipment for his household and the father's household to enable the father and the child to communicate during the week and on the father's off-weekends.

Thus, the mother established "the feasibility of preserving the relationship between the [father] and child through suitable visitation arrangements” Tropea, 87 N.Y.2d at 741. Therefore, the Appellate Division reversed the lower court and permitted relocation.

While the appellate court recognized the mother’s need to relocate, it is unfortunate that it took a situation where the mother and her husband both lost their job and exhausted all of their financial resources and their house went into foreclosure. In my opinion, it would be appropriate for the court to consider the parties’ economic circumstances well before they become dire. It today’s economy, it is likely that we will see these issues addressed by the courts time and time again.

Relocation and Modification of Custodial Arrangements

Monday, October 13th, 2008

One of the most common post-divorce scenarios is that the custodial parent wishes to relocate, the other party objects to such proposed move and argues that such move may negatively impact on the other parent’s relationship with the child. Assuming that the parties’ Judgment of Divorce, or separation agreement, does not conclusively address this issue, the party seeking to relocate will typically need to seek the court’s permission to do so.

As laid out in the leading case of Tropea v. Tropea, 87 N.Y.2d 727 (1996), the issue is to be determined is whether the proposed relocation is in the best interest in the child. In doing so, the court is to consider the following criteria:

1. Each parent’s reason for either seeking or opposing the relocation;

2. The current state of the relationship between each parent and the child;

3. The impact that the relocation will have on the quality and of the child’s relationship
with the non-custodial parent;

4. The emotional, economic and educational effects that the move will have on the
child; and

5. The feasibility of maintaining the relationship between the child and non-custodial
parent.

The trial court must weigh all of the factors and determine not what would be best for the parents but, rather, what is in the best interests of the child.

In Noble v. Noble, 52 A.D.3d 490 (2nd Dept. 2008), the mother sought to relocate from relocation from Long Island to upstate NY. The court held that the proposed relocation was in children’s best interests since the proposed move would provide economic, emotional and educational benefits for the mother and parties’ children without precluding meaningful and regular contact between children and father.

In Mallory v. Jackson, 51 A.D.3d 1088 (3rd Dept. 2008), the parties consented to June 2006 order awarding joint legal custody with mother having primary physical residence of the children. In October 2006, mother sought permission to relocate with parties’ children to North Carolina. Mother moved to North Carolina while petition was pending, leaving children with father at maternal grandmother’s home in Schenectady County. Mother was required to demonstrate by preponderance of evidence that proposed relocation would be in children’s best interests. Mother alleged that father had failed to provide her financial support throughout their relationship, and she was moving to be near a relative who offered financial assistance. The Appellate Division held that mother, who had already relocated, failed to present evidence at hearing that her financial situation in North Carolina was significantly better than while living in New York. Mother’s remaining extended family continues to reside in New York. The proposed relocation to North Carolina would deprive child of meaningful contact with father and members of their extended family and mother failed to establish existence of compelling reason to justify relocation of children to North Carolina.

If the court does not find the proposed move to be in the best interests of the children, the parent who has the primary physical residence of the children usually has a choice between staying or losing that primary physical residence to the other parent.